Singhania & Co

Call now +91-22-2202 0320 / 21 / 22

about Us

Indian Judiciary System

Indian Judiciary System

The court system in India is based on the jurisdiction bestowed upon them by the Constitution. The Supreme Court of India is at the top of the hierarchy for the entire country and the High Courts are at the top of the hierarchy in each State. These courts have jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and union territories. Below the High Courts are a hierarchy of subordinate courts such as the Civil Courts, Family Courts, Criminal Courts, Labour Courts and various other courts and Tribunals.

There are total 24 High Courts in our country. There are 3 chartered high courts in India viz., at Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai having both original and appellate jurisdiction. The Bombay High Court exercises its original jurisdiction and tries cases exceeding the pecuniary value of Rs. 1 Crore and above. The High Court tries the Appeals/ Revisions/ References from the District Courts/City Civil Court and Sessions Courts and Writ Petitions in terms of Article 226 of the Constitution of India.

The Supreme Court is the highest appellate court which takes up appeals against the decisions of the High Courts and other courts and Tribunals of India. The Supreme Court has exclusive original jurisdiction in any dispute between;

The cases filed in the Courts are mainly of two types, namely civil and criminal. The matters seeking remedy with regards to the property and any civil rights given under any civil law is said to be civil case. Criminal case is a matter for violation of the provisions of any act prohibited by law for which punishment in the form of imprisonment or fine is imposed.

  • The Government of India and one or more states or
  • The Union Government and any State or States on the one side and one or more States on the other,
  • Two or more states, if the disputes involve a legal right.

The cases filed in the Courts are mainly of two types, namely civil and criminal cases. A law suit is filed to redress a private wrong such as breach of contract, encroachment, or negligence; or to enforce civil remedies such as compensation, damages, and injunction. Also called civil action, civil proceedings, or civil suit